Beneficial Effects of Breast Milk on Intestinal Bacteria in Infants at Risk for Celiac Disease

Background Celiac Disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine.  Signs and symptoms occur with the consumption of gluten.  Gluten is a protein found in many grains, cereals, and breads.  Gluten consumption can lead to severe damage to the intestinal wall and malabsorption in CD patients. Currently, a strict gluten-free diet is […]

Obesity Associated with Reduced Levels of Intestinal Microbiota

Background Obesity is an energy disorder and something that more and more of us are becoming familiar with. Obesity is measured using a person’s body mass index (BMI) which is a proportion of a person’s height and weight. Obesity, defined as having a BMI of greater than 30, is related to many health conditions such […]

Weight Loss Increases Vitamin D Status

Background Vitamin D is considered to be a hormone as well as a vitamin. It regulates calcium absorption and is important for bone health. Levels of vitamin D vary based on weight, ethnicity, age, and geography. Lab and epidemiological studies have claimed that vitamin D could be protective against certain cancers and cardiovascular disease. It […]

Influence of Vitamin D Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profiles: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) refers to a wide range of conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels such as veins and arteries. It is the leading cause of death and is also responsible for a high disability rate worldwide. Efforts have been made to research and identify risk factors for atherosclerosis, the hardening and potential […]

Types of Dietary Fat Can Affect the Uptake of Vitamin D Supplementation in the Body

Background Calcium and vitamin D3 are necessary for bone health. Vitamin D3 is a fat-soluble vitamin that is poorly soluble in aqueous environments like intestinal lumen. Therefore for it to be absorbed it needs to be solubilized by dietary fat and bile salt. Purpose Some studies have shown that some types of dietary fat like […]

Changes in Hormones After Weight Loss May Explain Weight Regain

Background Many any people who suffer from overweight and obesity go on diets that restrict their calories, which initially leads to weight loss, however the majority of these dieters regain the weight. The body is able to detect a low amount of calories consumed, and will therefore increase levels of ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates […]

Effect of Normal Versus High Protein Diet on Bone Mineral Density During Weight Loss

Background Weight loss through caloric restriction can lead to a decrease in bone mineral density and greater fracture risk. Risk factors are prevalent in the older population due to decreased calcium absorption. High protein diets have shown to have a positive effect on bone mineral density and can reduce the risk of bone fractures in […]

Greater Weight Loss and Insulin Sensitivity with Carbohydrates Eaten Mostly at Dinner

Background Body fat has the ability to secrete certain hormones throughout the day which can regulate hunger, satiety, and the development of metabolic syndrome. Among the hormones secreted by body fat, leptin and adiponectin are involved in satiety and improving insulin sensitivity, respectively. Both can possibly be modified through altered carbohydrate consumption in order to […]

Effects of 4 Weight-loss Diets Differing in Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrate on Fat Mass, Lean Mass, Visceral Adipose Tissue, and Hepatic Fat: Results from the Pounds Lost Trial

Background The problem is that there are currently many fad diets and diet supplements that claim to change total body weight and waist circumference. However, the aim of any weight loss attempt is the reduction of fat mass rather than lean mass. The standard measurement for overall body weight change gives total mass lost with […]

Weight Loss in Obese Older Adults by the Combination if Exercise and Diet

Background Obesity has been steadily increasing over the past few decades, and has become a clear issue in our society today. Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2. In adults 65 years and older, 20% of the population is currently obese. This can lead to many complications in combination with […]