Overview of Osteoporosis, Weight loss and Endocrine

PI: Shapses SA

Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences. Affiliated with Department of Medicine (Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nutrition), School of Rutgers Biomedical Health Sciences
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ; shapses@rutgers.edu

The OWLE data set comes from a continuous NIH grant (Nutritional regulation of bone-AG12161; total duration 1994-2016) to show how moderate weight loss affects bone, body composition or calcium absorption under various conditions in different cycles of this grant from the National Institutes of Aging (NIA).

Population and Study Design (OWLE)

  • Healthy, primarily Caucasian (85%) women (82%) and men (18%); ages 21-70 y and BMI 25-40 kg/m2
  • All studies are diet intervention alone (no exercise intervention)
  • Duration: 6-12 mo. Depending on specific study within the grant period.  Also, a subset underwent short-term 6 week wt loss
  • Weekly nutrition/behavior counseling in the first 2 months, and monthly thereafter.
  • Whole body composition (DXA) was performed before and after intervention.
  • Serum and urine collected at baseline and multiple times during follow up (total population of ~n=600).
  • Whole blood samples collected at baseline (~220 samples)
  • 24 hour diet recall was taken at baseline and food diaries were used to estimate nutrient intake during the intervention (~3 days/wk – monthly).

Phenotypes and Biological Markers (OWLE)

  • Body composition, bone mineral density and quality, rough estimate of physical activity & other lifestyle characteristics
  • Nutrient intake: 24-hour diet recall (baseline) and food diaries during intervention.
  • Height, weight, bloods (serum and whole blood), urine (spot and 24 hour depending on study).

All subjects had physical, chem screen (glucose, etc.) and lipid levels at baseline. Candidate genes are available in a subset (VDR and ESR1)


  • Shapses SA 2001 – OBESE premenopausal ages 21-45 y 3-arm study (2 levels of Ca with wt loss and wt maintenance, WM); n=28 WL; n=10 WM – 6 month intervention
  • Riedt CS, 2007 – Overweight -premenopausal – ages 21-45 y ; 3-arm study (2 levels of Ca with wt loss and wt stable); n=31 WL; n=13 WM – 6 month intervention
  • Riedt CS, 2005 Overweight postmenopausal – 45-70 y 3-arm study (2 levels of Ca with wt loss and wt stable); n=47 WL; n=19 WM – 6 month intervention
  • Sukumar D, 2011 Overweight/obese postmenopausal women ages 50-70 y  n=47 WL (2 levels of protein) – 1 year intervention
  • Pop LC, 2015 – Overweight/obese older men, ages 50-72 y (n=19 WL; n=19 WM) – 6 mo intervention
  • Shapses SA 2011, overweight/obese women; Overweight/obese postmenopausal women ages 50-70 y (2 levels of vitamin D and wt loss) – 6 week intervention (n=82) where some of the placebo group (n=43) was recruited for Pop 2016 study.
  • Pop LC, 2017; overweight/obese postmenopausal women ages 50-70 y; n=58 weight loss (3 levels of vit D) – 1 year intervention

For other related publications, see: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=shapses+s

Sample size of additional studies

  • Roux Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) patients-  n=21 before and 6 months after surgery, Riedt CS, Obesity, 2006; and before and after surgery – Goode LR, Obesity Res. 2004.
  • Cross sectional analysis in young and older lean, overweight/obese men and women. (MCP1 study-Sukumar D, JCEM 2011; Hao L, Nutrients, 2017, plus n=25 international collaborative study in south Asian Indian men (unpublished study).